types of computer hardware and their functions

Parts of computer

A computer is mainly made up of two parts.

1. Hardware
2. Software

Hardware: –

The part of the computer that we can touch with our hands is called hardware.
Such as keyboard, mouse, monitor, CPU, printer etc.
Software: – The part of the computer that we can see with our eyes. Can use but cannot touch. To make work easy, different software has been created for every work.
Such as: – If we want to format the documents then draw the word pad, note pad, then make MS Paint, then use Adobe PhotoShop.

Hardware is useless without software. Hardware is like body and software soul.
Without software, the hardware bus remains empty.
The software adds life to it only when the computer is turned on.

Different parts of the computer

The computer mainly consists of two parts.

  • Hardware
  • Software

Hardware

The physical parts of the computer that we can see or touch are called hardware. These parts can be mechanical, electrical or electronic. The hardware of each computer can be different. It depends on what purpose the computer is being used for and what is the need of the person. A computer has various types of hardware, the main ones being CPU. (CPU), Hard Disk, RAM (RAM), Processor, Processor, Monitor, Mother Board, Floppy Drive etc. We will discuss them in detail further. Computer cables, power supply units, keyboard, mouse etc. are also under hardware. Keyboards, mouse, monitors, microphones, printers etc. are sometimes called Peripherals.

Software

The physical parts of the computer that we can see or touch are called hardware. These parts can be mechanical, electrical or electronic. The hardware of each computer can be different. It depends on what purpose the computer is being used for and what is the need of the person. A computer has various types of hardware, the main ones being CPU. (CPU), Hard Disk, RAM (RAM), Processor, Processor, Monitor, Mother Board, Floppy Drive etc. We will discuss them in detail further. Computer cables, power supply units, keyboard, mouse etc. are also under hardware. Keyboards, mouse, monitors, microphones, printers etc. are sometimes called Peripherals.

There are mainly two types of software.

1. System Software

“System software” is called programs whose job is to run the system, ie the computer and keep it workable. Hardware only performs its assigned work with the help of system software. Operating system, compiler etc. are the main parts of system software.

2. Application Software

“Application software” is called programs that help us do our everyday tasks more quickly and easily in the computer. There are different application software for different uses as per the requirement. For example, to write, to keep data, to record songs, to calculate salary, to keep track of transactions, to keep stock of items, the programs written are application software.

Different Computer Hardware

CPU: CPU Means the Central Processing Unit, the part in which the major work of the computer is done. In Hindi, it is also called Central Analytical Unit. As it is clear from its name, it is that part of the computer, where the computer analyzes the information received. We can also call it the heart of the computer. Sometimes the CPU is called only processor or microprocessor.

Microprocessor:

Microprocessor is the electronic part of a computer which completes the work by following our instructions and programs. The speed of a computer depends only on the capacity of its processor. There are mainly two big companies in the world that produce microprocessors. These are INTEL and AM D. (AMD) processors of these Intel companies are more used. Each company gives different code names according to the technology and capacity of the processors. Such as Intel are the major processors of the company.
Pantium-1, Pantium-2, Pantium-3, Pantium-4, Celeron, Core to Duo etc. Likewise, AMD The major processors of the company are K-5, K-6, Athelon etc. Processor capacity is measured in hertz.
The processor reads the messages placed in the memory of the computer in a sequential manner and then works according to them. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) can be further divided into three parts.
1. Control Unit
2. ALU
3. memory or memory

Control unit

The control unit directs and controls all the activities of the computer. The control unit’s control is also to control the input and output devices of the computer. The main functions of the control unit are –
1. First bring information / data to the controller with the help of input devices.
2. Providing proper space in memory / memory to the information / data by the controller.
3. Re-bringing information / data from memory into the controller and ALU them. Send in
4. Sending the results obtained from ALU to the output devices and sm

Alu

ALU means Arithmetic and Logical Unit. This is the unit of computer where all types of calculations can be done, such as adding, subtracting or multiplying. The ALU works on the instructions of the control unit.
Memory / memory
Keeping any instructions, information or results stored is called memory. CPU of Computer All the actions that take place in memory go to memory first. Memory is technically a storage device for computers. Memory is the most important part of a computer where data, information and programs are located during the process and are available immediately when needed.

Memory is mainly of two types.

1. RAM:

RAM is a random access memory. It is a working memory ie it works only when you are working on the computer. All the information stored in RAM is destroyed when the computer is shut down. When the computer is running, the processor works on the basis of data and information stored in RAM. Processors can also read and change the information stored on this memory.

2. ROM (ROM):

ROM ie read only memory. As is clear from the name itself, the information stored in this memory can only be read and cannot be changed. Information is stored in the memory even when the computer is turned off.

Motherboard:

It is the foundation of the computer in a way. The processor of the computer, different types of cards such as display cards, sound cards, etc. are installed on the motherboard itself.
Peripherals: Peripherals are electro-mechanical parts of hardware that are added externally to the CPU. They provide programmed instructions or data to the CPU and capture the information processed by the CPU. Peripherals can also be divided into different categories.

Computer hardware:

input, output devices
We learned that Peripherals are electro-mechanical parts of hardware that are added externally to the CPU. They provide programmed instructions or data to the CPU and capture the information processed by the CPU. Peripherals can be mainly divided into two parts.
                               1. Input Device 2. Output Device

input device

As it is clear from its name that this is the device through which we give instructions to the computer. Taking messages from them, the computer works on them according to the program. Such as keyboards, mouse, joy stick, microphone etc.

Keyboards:

 Keyboards are the main input devices of any computer. The computer keyboard also has all the letters in the same order as a typewriter. But the keyboard has more buttons than a typewriter. It has some function buttons which can be predetermined for repeated tasks. As such, the F1 button is usually programmed to assist. There is a special place (port) to connect the computer board to the computer. But in the market nowadays, the USB Key boards are also coming, which are the computers of the USB. Used in the port. Similarly, wireless boards also come, which do not even need to be connected to the computer. These types of keyboards are powered by batteries.

Mouse:

The mouse is also an input device, but it usually has three buttons, the loft button, the right button and a middle wheel. Using a mouse, you don’t have to remember any of the buttons on the board. Just point the mouse pointer to the screen. But you have to click on any fixed place. 

Output device

Just as the input device is used to take instructions from the user, similarly the output device is the device through which we view or receive the processed information by the computer. Examples are mainly screen (monitor) and printer.

Monitor:

The instructions we give to the computer or the processed information we receive, we see on the monitor. Mainly, two types of monitors are in vogue nowadays.

CRT Monitor:

This monitor works on the same principle as the old TV in our house. It has a cathode ray tube, hence it is called CRT monitor. It is slightly larger and its screen remains slightly curved.

TFT Monitor: This is a direct (flat) monitor.

TFT monitor: This is a direct (flat) monitor. It is low in weight and also occupies less space. This CRT The monitor is relatively expensive.

Printers:

Printers are of different types according to the requirement, work capacity and budget. But mainly three types of printers are used in homes.

Dot Matrix Printer:

This printer uses ribbon. Also 80 columns and 132 columns come in two types of capacities. The cost of printing in this is less than that of the banked printers but the quality and speed of the print is less than other printers. Only one color print can be taken at a time. Therefore, it is also called mono printer.

Inkjet Printer:

It works on inkjet technology. It comes in two types of printers like mono and color (color). Its quality and speed are both better but the printing cost is also higher in it.

LaserJet Printer:

It works on thermal technology. There are also two types of mono and color (colored) printers. Its quality and speed are better than the banked printers.
Nowadays, all-in-one printers also come in the market, which you can use as a photo copy machine, scanner and fax in addition to printers.

What is this software?

Software

As we have already read that ‘software’ is called the programs that we run on hardware. The most important software to run any computer is the operating system. Without the operating system, you cannot work in a computer.

Operating System

The operating system is a system of systematically frozen software that controls the transmission of data and instructions. The operating system acts as a bridge between the hardware and the software.
The computer itself does not exist. It is simply a cluster of hardware such as keyboards, monitors, CPUs, etc.
The operating system establishes a connection between all the hardware. The operating system does not require the user to be aware of the various parts of the computer.
Also, the user can do all his work without any stress. It shares the resources of the system. And organizes.
There are many other useful departments of the operating system, many of whose work is done by the central processor.
For example, if you do some printing work, the central processor leaves the work on the operating system by giving the necessary commands and it starts doing the next task on its own.
Apart from this, renaming the file, changing the contents of the directory, changing the directory, etc. are done by the operating system.
The most popular operating systems today are those made by the Microsoft company. Among them are DOS, Windows-98, Windows-XP, Windows-Vista.
But you have to buy them all with a computer. If you want to use a free operating system, then there are many Linux operating systems that are completely free.
Many of these are also better than Windows in many ways but it may take a little longer to learn them.
Since Windows is the most popular operating system right now, we will use examples related to it in this article.
Application Software: Application software fulfills your daily needs of Marra.
 For example, if you want to write something, then there is notepad and wordpad in Windows for that.
 Apart from this, you can use Open Office which is free or you can buy Microsoft Office from which you can use Microsoft Word for writing.
 Apart from this, you can use Microsoft Excel for mathematical, statistical use of data and power point to make presentations. Windows has a software named Paint for any type of drawing.
If you want to do advanced drawing then you gimp.
(GIMP) which is free or you can buy Photoshop software of Adobe company.

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